Business and Economic History

Chandler, Alfred D. (1990). Scale and Scope. Cambridge, Harvard University Press.

Epstein, Stephan R. (1998). "Craft Guilds, Apprenticeship and Technological Change in Preindustrial Europe." The Journal of Economic History, 58, 3, (684-713). Although not the central topic in the paper, this excellent paper shows that Europe became the center of economic growth because the diversity of and competition between regions and political units acted as an insurance policy against inertia. When one region would decline in its innovative ability, another region would take over the leadership role within Europe.

John, Richard R. (1997). "Elaborations, Revisions, Dissents: Alfred D. Chandler, Jr’s “The Visible Hand” after Twenty Years." Business History Review, 71 (Summer), (151-206). Click on title for full text of the article on

Murmann, Johann Peter (2003). Knowledge and Competitive Advantage: The Coevolution of Firms, Technology, and National Institution. New York, Cambridge University Press.